In Papua and West Papua, PNPM Rural is implemented together with RESPEK (Rencana Strategis Pembangunan Kampung, or the Village Development Strategic Plan), a CDD program at the provincial level. The two programs were implemented together in the two provinces in 2008 under one name, PNPM RESPEK. In 2010, the then Governor of West Papua decided to separate the implementation of RESPEK from PNPM Rural, following which funding for RESPEK was directly channelled to village heads who were also responsible for the implementation of the program.
This beneficiary assessment study, based on a study conducted in 2013 by an independent research institute in Indonesia called AKATIGA, is a unique attempt to capture and understand the perspectives of beneficiaries of the PNPM/RESPEK program in the challenging environment of Papua and West Papua. Previous studies into PNPM/RESPEK have looked at program implementation primarily in terms of the program’s operational achievements. This study, however, aims to understand the beneficiaries’ perspectives on how the program was run in their villages. Only by understanding the perspective of beneficiaries can we start to understand the challenges faced by the program within the social, political and local cultural contexts. As such, this study attempts to capture the diversity of opinions, experiences, and the varying degrees of knowledge of the program across different layers of the community, as well as the factors that influence these differences.
The findings of this study highlight some of the key implementation challenges of CDD in remote areas and proposes how these might be addressed for future implementation of CDD programs in Papua/West Papua, as well as in the context ofthe new Law on Villages (Law No. 6/2014), known as ‘the Village Law’. The Village Law will see a significant increase in development funding allocated to villages, while mandating the inclusion of participatory, transparency and accountability principles in its implementation mechanism.